Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015

Created 4 years ago, updated 3 years ago

About the English Indices of Deprivation 2015

The Indices of Deprivation 2015 provide a set of relative measures of deprivation for small areas (Lower-layer Super Output Areas) across England, based on seven domains of deprivation. The domains were combined using the following weights to produce the overall Index of Multiple Deprivation:

  • Income Deprivation (22.5%)
  • Employment Deprivation (22.5%)
  • Education, Skills and Training Deprivation (13.5%)
  • Health Deprivation and Disability (13.5%)
  • Crime (9.3%)
  • Barriers to Housing and Services (9.3%)
  • Living Environment Deprivation (9.3%)

The Income Deprivation Domain measures the proportion of the population experiencing deprivation relating to low income. The definition of low income used includes both those people that are out-of-work, and those that are in work but who have low earnings (and who satisfy the respective means tests).

The Employment Deprivation Domain measures the proportion of the working-age population in an area involuntarily excluded from the labour market. This includes people who would like to work but are unable to do so due to unemployment, sickness or disability, or caring responsibilities.

The Education, Skills and Training Deprivation Domain measures the lack of attainment and skills in the local population. The indicators fall into two sub-domains: one relating to children and young people and one relating to adult skills.

The Health Deprivation and Disability Domain measures the risk of premature death and the impairment of quality of life through poor physical or mental health. The domain measures morbidity, disability and premature mortality but not aspects of behaviour or environment that may be predictive of future health deprivation.

The Crime Domain measures the risk of personal and material victimisation at local level.

The Barriers to Housing and Services Domain measures the physical and financial accessibility of housing and local services. The indicators fall into two sub-domains: ‘geographical barriers’, which relate to the physical proximity of local services, and ‘wider barriers’ which includes issues relating to access to housing such as affordability.

The Living Environment Deprivation Domain measures the quality of the local environment. The indicators fall into two sub-domains. The ‘indoors’ living environment measures the quality of housing; while the ‘outdoors’ living environment contains measures of air quality and road traffic accidents.

There are also two supplementary indices:

The Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI) measures the proportion of all children aged 0 to 15 living in income deprived families. It is a subset of the Income Deprivation Domain which measures the proportion of the population in an area experiencing deprivation relating to low income. The definition of low income used includes both those people that are out-of-work, and those that are in work but who have low earnings (and who satisfy the respective means tests).

The Income Deprivation Affecting Older People Index (IDAOPI) measures the proportion of all those aged 60 or over who experience income deprivation. It is a subset of the Income Deprivation Domain which measures the proportion of the population in an area experiencing deprivation relating to low income. The definition of low income used includes both those people that are out-of-work, and those that are in work but who have low earnings (and who satisfy the respective means tests).

All of the data files and supporting documents for the English Indices of Deprivation 2015 are available from: www.gov.uk/government/statistics/english-indices-of-deprivation-2015

Chapter 3 of the Research Report gives advice on using and interpreting the data.

Most of the data used in the Indices of Deprivation 2015 relates to the tax year 2012/13 - see Chapter 4 of the Technical Report for more details.

The Indices of Deprivation 2015 have been constructed for the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) by Oxford Consultants for Social Inclusion (OCSI).

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Explore the 2015 Indices of Deprivation for areas in Surrey

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This file shows the score, ranks and deciles for the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015 (IMD 2015), the seven individual domains and the two supplementary indices: the Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI) and the Income Deprivation Affecting Older People Index (IDAOPI), at Lower-layer Super Output Area (LSOA) level.

The scores for the overall Index of Multiple Deprivation are not easy to interpret as they do not relate straightforwardly to the proportion of the population experiencing deprivation. It is recommended that ranks and deciles, but not scores, are used in the case of the overall Index of Multiple Deprivation.

In the case of the Income Deprivation Domain and the Employment Deprivation Domain, and the supplementary indices of income deprivation among children and older people the scores are meaningful and relate to a proportion of the relevant population experiencing that type of deprivation. So, for example, if a Lower-layer Super Output Area has a score of 0.38 in the Income Deprivation Domain, this means that 38 per cent of the population is income deprived in that area.

The scores for the remaining five domains are less easy to interpret as they do not relate straightforwardly to the proportion of the population experiencing deprivation. It is recommended that ranks and deciles, but not scores, are used in the case of these domains.

For each measure, the LSOA with a rank of 1 is the most deprived and the LSOA with a rank of 32,844 is the least deprived.

The deciles are calculated by ranking the 32,844 LSOAs in England from most deprived to least deprived and dividing them into 10 equal groups. LSOAs in decile 1 fall within the most deprived 10% of LSOAs nationally and LSOAs in decile 10 fall within the least deprived 10% of LSOAs nationally.

LSOAs (Lower-layer Super Output Areas) are small areas designed to be of a similar population size, with an average of approximately 1,500 residents or 650 households. There are 32,844 Lower-layer Super Output Areas (LSOAs) in England. They were produced by the Office for National Statistics for the reporting of small area statistics.

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Average score:

Population weighted average of the combined scores for the LSOAs in a larger area.

The average score summary measure is calculated by averaging the LSOA scores in each larger area after they have been population weighted. The resultant scores for the larger areas are then ranked, where the rank of 1 (most deprived) is given to the area with the highest score.

In the case of the Income Deprivation Domain, the Employment Deprivation Domain and the supplementary indices of income deprivation among children and older people, the scores are meaningful and relate to a proportion of the relevant population experiencing that type of deprivation. So, for example, if an area has a score of 0.38 in the Income Deprivation Domain, this means that 38 per cent of the population is income deprived in that area.

The scores for the overall Index of Multiple Deprivation are less easy to interpret as they do not relate straightforwardly to the proportion of the population experiencing deprivation. It is recommended that ranks and deciles, but not scores, are used in the case of the overall Index.

Rank in England for Geography type:

Local Authority ranks are out of 326 LAs in England

County rank is out of 152 upper tier authorities in England

Clinical Commissioning Group ranks are out of 209 CCGs in England

Ward averages have been calculated by the Surrey-i team and are not part of the data published by DCLG, so the "rank in England" is not available for wards.

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This guidance note, published by the Department of Communities and Local Government, is to aid interpretation of the Index of Multiple Deprivation